Tag Archives: meltdown

Statistically Valid Detections

Filed under Radiation, Science
Tagged as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The basic idea comes from z-score * sqrt(2*background)

Basic Isotope Identification (Gamma Spectroscopy)

Filed under Radiation, Science
Tagged as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Please read below (Resource links, etc)

Copyright:
All materials in this video are copyright of me. I created them all. The screen captures of the software are from Spectrum Techniques.

My Equipment:

Spectrometer: UCS30 – http://www.spectrumtechniques.com/spec_systems.htm
Sources: Cs137 – http://www.spectrumtechniques.com/disc&laminated_sources.htm
Lead: rotometals.com

Gamma Energy Resources:

http://ie.lbl.gov/decay.html
http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/radSearch.asp
http://simplynuclear.com/index.php?title=Common_Gamma_Energy

Thorium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Actinium 228 13 keV 0.38
Thorium 232 *63.81 keV 0.00267
Lead 212 *77.11 keV 0.175
Thorium 228 84.37 keV 0.01266
Thorium 228 131.61 keV 0.001355
Thorium 228 166.41 keV 0.001075
Thorium 228 215.99 keV 0.00263
Lead 212 238.63 keV 0.433
Actinium 228 *338.32 keV 0.113
Thallium 208 510.77 keV 0.226
Thallium 208 *583.19 keV 0.845
Bismuth 212 727.33 keV 0.0658
Actinium 228 911.21 keV 0.266
Actinium 228 968.97 keV 0.162

Uranium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Uranium 238 13 keV 0.08
Uranium 235 19.59 keV 0.61
Lead 210 46.54 keV 0.0425
Lead 214 77.11 keV 0.099
Thorium 234 92.38 keV 0.028
Thorium 234 92.8 keV 0.028
Uranium 235 143.76 keV 0.1096
Uranium 235 185.71 keV 0.572
Radium 226 *186.1 keV 0.35
Thorium 227 235.97 keV 0.123
Lead 214 *241.98 keV 0.075
Lead 214 *295.21 keV 0.185
Lead 214 *351.92 keV 0.358
Bismuth 211 404.85 keV 0.0378
Bismuth 214 *609.31 keV 0.448
Bismuth 214 768.36 keV 0.048
Protactinium 234m 1001.03 keV 0.00370

Potassium 40 Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Potassium 40 *1461 keV 0.1067

Depleted Uranium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Thorium 234 13.3 keV 0.045
Thorium 234 *63.29 keV 0.048
Thorium 234 *92.38 keV 0.028
Thorium 234 *92.8 keV 0.028
Uranium 235 19.59 keV 0.61
Uranium 235 *143.76 keV 0.1096
Uranium 235 185.71 keV 0.572
Protactinium 234m 1001.03 keV 0.00370

Collecting Uranium

Filed under Radiation, Science
Tagged as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

!!!The most important aspects of safety!!!

Key things to reduce exposure:
1. Shielding
2. Time (of exposure)
3. Distance

Key things to keep safe:
1. Minimize exposure if possible.
2. Always wash hands and wear gloves.
3. Never allow inhalation or ingestion of dust from samples.
4. Keep samples away from children (anyone, actually) and only bring
5. Never store samples under your bed (not sure why they do, but apparently people do this lol)

Good books:
Introduction to Radioactive Minerals – Robert Lauf

Places to buy uranium:
minresco.com
UnitedNuclear.com

(eBay and Amazon have some too, but be careful!)

Places to get equipment:

Carolina.com
GeigerCounters.com
www.minresco.com

Places to get a Geiger counter (including recommended models):

Model 3 + 44-9 Pancake Probe – Ludlums.com
Inspector – GeigerCounters.com
PRM9000 – GeigerCounters.com
CDV700 – VArious places (careful of bad units… may need repair and claibration)

A Demonstration of Nuclear Radiation

Filed under Radiation, Science
Tagged as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

A quick demonstration of nuclear radiation. Just for fun and maybe even a little education. =)

Basic Isotope Identification!!! – Gamma Spectroscopy 101 – Full Lesson

Filed under Basics, Radiation, Science
Tagged as , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Where to buy isotopes:

http://spectrumtechniques.com/

Where to find lists of gamma energies:
http://simplynuclear.com/index.php?title=Common_Gamma_Energy
http://ie.lbl.gov/toipdf/eandi.pdf
http://ie.lbl.gov/decay.html
http://www.gammaspectrometry.co.uk/appendices/appendixd.pdf

Where to get a detector
http://www.gammaspectacular.com/products/scintillation_detectors
http://spectrumtechniques.com/detectors&stands.htm
http://www.ludlums.com/component/virtuemart/gamma-detector-171-detail?activetab=options

Where to get an MCA
http://www.gammaspectacular.com/products/sound_card_spectrometry_drivers
http://spectrumtechniques.com/spec_systems.htm

Where to get uranium!!! (how could you live without it?)
http://unitednuclear.com/
http://minresco.com/radioactive/radioactive01.htm

Equations (simplified for quick and dirty use!!!)

  2 * (E keV)^2
___________________ = Compton Edge
  511 keV + 2(E keV)

                  2 * (E keV)^2
E keV – ________________ = Back Scatter peak
                  511 keV + 2(E keV)

(Tom’s opinion)
Best source for calibration: Cs137
Best detecttor type: NaI(Tl) 1″ or greater!
Best free MCA software: PRA 8

Tom’s Isotope Tables!!!

http://simplynuclear.com/index.php?title=Common_Gamma_Energy