Tag Archives: fusion

Autunite Uranium Spectrum!

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Autunite

Autunite - Uranium


Autunite is a very beautiful, many might say the most beautiful, uranium-bearing mineral. Autunite contains many amazing isotopes, including a few transuranic elements! I received a sample of the beautiful and deadly mineral from a friend at the cost of an analysis using my gamma spectrometer.

I have finally completed a calibration analysis of my spectrometer, to include a 17 KeV to 2MeV window with a +/- 3KeV tolerance. These are favorable conditions for analysis of uranium and uranium daughters.

Today, I tested my new Autunite sample in my gamma spectrometer to see what I might find within it’s calcium-encrusted innards. The primary natural uranium products are there, as expect: Lead 214 and Bismuth 214 being heavy gamma emitters, lead the way with large spikes at 351.92 KeV, 295 KeV, and 609.31KeV, 1764.49 KeV, respectively. I detected a tiny bit of Radium 226, Uranium 235, and Uranium 238.

Japanese Soil Tests – First Results

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Soil Sample J-A From Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture (26km NE from Tokyo)

Soil Sample J-A From Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture (26km NE from Tokyo)


[NOTE: This is not my official results, but a merely my first test of the materials. Much more to come]

I have just received a set of samples from a friend in Japan. The samples are from various locations around the country and ready to be tested in my gamma spectrometer. I will be publishing a full set of tests very soon, but until that time I thought I might provide a small glimpse of the preliminary results. This is a gamma spectrum from a sample, J-A_3600s, which was tested for one full hour using gamma spectroscopy. The sample shown came in a small 1” x 2” canister and contained soil from just under a water rain spout in residential housing area (back yard), of a person living in Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture (26km NE from Tokyo).

The sample measured about 306 CPM at contact using a 2” pancake Geiger Muller probe. During the hour of testing, clear photo-peaks for Cesium 134 and 137 were easily detected from the sample. Other features included several very small deformations in the spectrum which were either inconsequential, i.e. x-ray interference, or unidentifiable due to extremely low activity.

The extreme amounts of background “noise” found in the spectrum is consistent with a powerful beta emitter. Gamma spectroscopy cannot directly detect Strontium 90, but given the release amounts of Cs 137 and the typical matching of Cs137 and Sr90 isotopes following a nuclear release, like that of Fukushima, it is plausible to consider that Sr90, and by decay association Y90 and Y90m, are also present.

Autunite Mineral Tested

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Autunite is a very beautiful, many might say the most beautiful, uranium-bearing mineral. Autunite contains many amazing isotopes, including a few transuranic elements! I received a sample of the beautiful and deadly mineral from a friend at the cost of an analysis using my gamma spectrometer.

I have finally completed a calibration analysis of my spectrometer, to include a 17 KeV to 2MeV window with a +/- 3KeV tolerance. These are favorable conditions for analysis of uranium and uranium daughters.

Today, I tested my new Autunite sample in my gamma spectrometer to see what I might find within it’s calcium-encrusted innards. I was amazed at what I found, including U235! The primary natural uranium products are there, as expect: Lead 214 and Bismuth 214 being heavy gamma emitters, lead the way with large spikes at 351.92 KeV, 295 KeV, and 609.31KeV, 1764.49 KeV, respectively. I detected a tiny bit of Radium 226, Uranium 235, and Uranium 238.

Autunite Full Scale Report
Autunite, ROI Peak Report
Autunite Information

Radioactive Units – Do Not Use Them Incorrectly!

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Geiger counters count ionizing radiation events.

To measure a detected reading, the energy of the detected radiation must be known. If the detected radiation has an unknown energy, there can be no measure, but merely the detection.

Examples of different energies from common isotopes released by Fukushima (approx):
Cs137 — 0.5 MeV beta
Cs137 — 1.1 MeV beta
Cs137 –Ba137m — 0.6 MeV gamma (often used to calibrate GM’s)
Sr90 — 0.5 MeV beta + weak gamma
I131 — 333 KeV beta
I131 — 606 KeV beta
U238 — 4MeV alpha

As you can see, the energies very quit allot and cannot be assumed.

Here are some energy dependent units:
1 Gray = 1 joule / 1kg
1 Seivert = 1Gy x RadiationFactor x BodyPartFactor
1 RAD = 0.01 joule / 1kg
1 REM = 1 Rad x RadiationFactor
1 Roentgen = = 2.58×10^-4 Coulomb / 1kg

As you can see… each of these units uses a degree of energy. You do not know the energy unless you know the exact nature of your source. As a result, you cannot use them.

In short: If and only if you know the exact energy of your source and a specific calibration and calibrated geometry, you cannot accurately use any energy dependent unit. All such unit measures are meaningless in these cases.

Use Counts Per Minute (CPM) or Counts Per Second (CPS)

Have fun!

Geiger Counters 101 — The Basics, Part One

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Part one of the Geiger Counters 101 series, by Anti-Proton.com, covers the basic history, usage, and aspects of Geiger Counters. The following topics are covered in the first part:

The history of the Geiger-Mueller tube
Basic Geiger tube concepts
New Geiger counter? What do you do?
Taking a baseline/background reading
various tips and tricks.

There are no prerequisites other than you have an interest in radiation and Geiger counters.

Five things to remember:
(1) Always use CPM (Counts per minute) unless you are calibrated for the specific, known, element and radiation source you are detecting.
(2) There are four common ionizing radiation types: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and X-Ray.
(3) A Geiger Counter which is turned off detects NOTHING. Keep your unit on and stay informed.
(4) You cannot check too slowly. Do not rush your examinations of objects.
(5) Identify and monitor your baselines. A reading without a baseline is of little use.

Anti-Proton.com
GeigerCounters.com
RadiationNetwork.com
Medcom.com
Seintl.com