Lasers! Lasers! Lasers!

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Lets learn about lasers!

Key Terms:
Lasing Medium / Gain Medium – The material which forms the laser light.
Pump – The energy source needed to induce the population inversion.
Population Inversion – The act of causing the electrons in the lasing medium to jump to higher energy states.
Meta-Stable – A short period of stability.
Stimulated Emission – When an electron drops to a ground state and emits a photon as a result of another photon passing by it. Both photons are coherent.
Spontaneous Emission – When an electron drops to a ground state and emits a photon after a short time in a meta stable state.

The lasers in the video are DPSS Lasers (Diode Pumped Solid State)

An Infrared Aluminum Gallium Arsenide diode laser emits 808nm photons. These pump a Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate or Neodymium-Doped YAG crystal which emits 1064nm laser light. This light is Freq doubled using Potassium Titanyl Phosphate crystal to become 532nm, a beautiful green color

=)

Simple Decay Equation – Example (Polonium 210)

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How to calculate the current activity of a source given the activity at one point, the time which has elapsed, and the decay constant.

Activity_now = Activity_then * e^-((ln2/halflife)*elapsed_time)

Now, enter into your calculator for activity of 1000Bq, halflife of 20min, and elapsed time of 40min:

1000 * e ^ – ( ( ln(2) / 20 ) * 40 ) )

☢ Radioactive Tc99m ☢

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Technetium 99m has a half life of 6.01 hours and transitions to normal Technetium 99 via the release of surplus energy in the form of a gamma photon at 140.21 keV

Statistically Valid Detections

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The basic idea comes from z-score * sqrt(2*background)

Basic Isotope Identification (Gamma Spectroscopy)

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Please read below (Resource links, etc)

Copyright:
All materials in this video are copyright of me. I created them all. The screen captures of the software are from Spectrum Techniques.

My Equipment:

Spectrometer: UCS30 – http://www.spectrumtechniques.com/spec_systems.htm
Sources: Cs137 – http://www.spectrumtechniques.com/disc&laminated_sources.htm
Lead: rotometals.com

Gamma Energy Resources:

http://ie.lbl.gov/decay.html

http://ie.lbl.gov/toi/radSearch.asp

http://simplynuclear.com/index.php?title=Common_Gamma_Energy

Thorium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Actinium 228 13 keV 0.38
Thorium 232 *63.81 keV 0.00267
Lead 212 *77.11 keV 0.175
Thorium 228 84.37 keV 0.01266
Thorium 228 131.61 keV 0.001355
Thorium 228 166.41 keV 0.001075
Thorium 228 215.99 keV 0.00263
Lead 212 238.63 keV 0.433
Actinium 228 *338.32 keV 0.113
Thallium 208 510.77 keV 0.226
Thallium 208 *583.19 keV 0.845
Bismuth 212 727.33 keV 0.0658
Actinium 228 911.21 keV 0.266
Actinium 228 968.97 keV 0.162

Uranium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Uranium 238 13 keV 0.08
Uranium 235 19.59 keV 0.61
Lead 210 46.54 keV 0.0425
Lead 214 77.11 keV 0.099
Thorium 234 92.38 keV 0.028
Thorium 234 92.8 keV 0.028
Uranium 235 143.76 keV 0.1096
Uranium 235 185.71 keV 0.572
Radium 226 *186.1 keV 0.35
Thorium 227 235.97 keV 0.123
Lead 214 *241.98 keV 0.075
Lead 214 *295.21 keV 0.185
Lead 214 *351.92 keV 0.358
Bismuth 211 404.85 keV 0.0378
Bismuth 214 *609.31 keV 0.448
Bismuth 214 768.36 keV 0.048
Protactinium 234m 1001.03 keV 0.00370

Potassium 40 Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Potassium 40 *1461 keV 0.1067

Depleted Uranium Hypothesis
Isotope Energy Branching Ratio
Thorium 234 13.3 keV 0.045
Thorium 234 *63.29 keV 0.048
Thorium 234 *92.38 keV 0.028
Thorium 234 *92.8 keV 0.028
Uranium 235 19.59 keV 0.61
Uranium 235 *143.76 keV 0.1096
Uranium 235 185.71 keV 0.572
Protactinium 234m 1001.03 keV 0.00370